iii. The Western Ghats rise abruptly from the Western coastal plain.

iv. On the western side, the rivers flow swiftly and make a number of waterfalls like the Jog Falls on the Sharavati River.

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v. The slope is gentle towards the eastern side of the Western Ghats and the main rivers like the Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rise from the eastern slopes and flow eastwards and fall into the Bay of Bengal.

vi. The Thai Ghat, Bhor Ghat and Pal Ghat are three important passes in the Western Ghats, which provide passage for roads and railways, between the Konkan plains in the west and the Deccan plateau in the east.

vii. The Eastern Ghats join the Western Ghats at the Nilgiri hills and the highest point is Doda Beta (2637 m).

viii. The southern part of the Western Ghats is separated from the main Sahyadri range by Pal Ghat gap. It is used by roads and railways to connect the coastal plain of Kerala with the plains of Tamil Nadu.

ix. The highest peak of South India is Anai Mudi (2695 m), which is the nodal point from which hill ranges, like Anaimalai in the north, Palni in the northeast and Cardamom in the south radiate in different directions.

x. Kodaikanal, a hill station, is located on the southern edge of the Palni Hills.

xi. The Western Ghats terminate about 20 km north of Cape Comorin.

The Eastern Ghats:

i. They run almost parallel to the east coast.

ii. These are a series of detached hills, lying between the Mahanadi river in Orissa and the Vaigai river in Tamil Nadu.

iii. These hills are not continuous and almost disappear between Godavari and Krishna rivers.

iv. The Godavari valley divides the Eastern Ghats into the northern and southern parts.

v. The northern part is about 200 km wide, while the southern part is only 100 km wide.

vi. Mahendra Giri (1501 m) is the highest peak in the northern part.

vii. In the southern part, the Nallamalai range is the most prominent. It is composed of quartz and slate.

viii. The hills and plateaus in the southern part have low altitude.

ix. Further south, the Eastern Ghats merge with the Western Ghats, at Nilgiris.

x. Udagamandalam, a hill station, lies at the foot of the Doda Beta in the Nilgiris.