2. Akali Movement:

This movement started in 1920 in the Punjab and Sikh masses led by Akalis launched a satyagrah against the corrupt mahant and who were administering their places of worship.

The Govt was forced to pass a new Sikh Gurudwara Act in 1922 which was amended in 1925. The mahants were gradually turned out of the Gurudwara and Sikh Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee came to take charge of the administration of Gurudwara. After indepe­ndence it became a political party.

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3. The Bhagat Movement:

It is better known as Jana Bhagat movement, which was started by the Jatia over in 1914-15. It was a socio-religious reform movement which aimed at the improvement of the oraens a tribe inhabiting the area of district or of Ranchi, Palamau and Hazaribagh in Bihar.

4. Radhaswami Satsang:

It was started in 1951 by Shiv Dayal Khatri, at Dayalbagh near Agra. However, it became popular as an ideology during the time of its second Guru, Shaligram Baba. His followers didn’t recognise temples, shrines or sacred places

5. Movement Against Untouchability:

In modern times, the Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj and Dravida movements in south and the All India Depressed Classes Asso­ciation and Federation strived to eliminate untouchability.

Dr. Ambedkar was undoubtedly the greatest leader of the depressed classes. He sought to transform their lives and give them pride of place and significance in the country. Liberals like Gokhale argued for the democratic and social rights of Harijans and the Congress Party under Gandhiji put this social reform as imperative in their programmes.

6. Self Respect Movements:

It is closely linked with E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker (EVR). EVR 1st joined the Congress Party and became one of the general secretaries of the Madras Congress. In 1914 C. Natesa Mudaliar formed the Dravida Association for the development of Dravidian people.

This association later became the south Indian Liberal federation and started kaper called justice. Later a political party Justice Party was formed EVR was ferociously opposed the caste system and identified the Brahmins as the upholders of the system.

He clashed with C. Rajgopalachari the Congress stalwart, left the Congress and joined the Justice Party to continuing fight against Brahmins. History and mythology were written by Periyar (EVR) to depict Aryan and Brahmin exploitations of the south.

After the 1937 election which the Congress under CR won in Madras, the cry for a separate Dravide Nadu was raised. In 1944 C.N. Annandurai moved for the change of the name of the Justice Party to Dravida Kazagham. The eccentricities of EVR made another split in DK in Sept. 1949 to form DNK (Dravid Munnatra Kazagham).