3 Important Cases when Silence is Considered to Fraud in India

Mere silence amounts to fraud when the person keeping silent, is under a duty to speak. The duty to speak arises, where one party reposes trust and confidence in the other.

Circumstances where it is the duty of the person keeping silence to speak are:-

1. In contracts of uberimae-fide (contract of utmost faith)

2. In contracts of fiduciary relations.

3. Contract of guarantee.

4. Customary contract.

2. Where silence is equivalent to speech:

Sometimes, the silence is equivalent to speech. In such cases, the silence of a person amounts to fraud e.g., where a person keeps silent, knowing that his silence is going to be deceptive, he is guilty of fraud.

3. Half truths:

The silence may amount to fraud when a person discloses only the half truth and then keeps silent. A person may become guilty of fraud by non-disclosure also if he voluntarily discloses something and then stops half the ways. A person may keep silent. But if he speaks, he is duly bound to disclose the whole truth.

360 Words Essay on Reading a Pleasure or Pain

Nowadays, one can get reading material on any topic. It is like a hotel that serves different dishes to different persons according to their taste. If only one develops the habit of reading, even 24 hours a day will not be sufficient!

While there are so many other avenues to improve our knowledge like Internet and SMS, there is always some wrong information in these two sources.

For example, die information fed in the Internet which we refer to and take them as authentic, are some times inaccurate! One can find it when cross-checked with the ‘Guinness Book of World Records.’

In the same way, message we receive vide SMS is always found to be with spelling mistakes. If die school children get used to it, then their career will get affected. Hence, the teaching faculties never approve of SMS.

The concept of reading is to gain impeccable knowledge. This is possible only when one reads books, magazines and newspapers.

After passing all these stringent check only it conies out in print. So, the right choice for reading is only materials in print. Mark Twain had said, “The man who doesn’t read good books, has no advantage over the man, who can’t read them!”

383 Words Essay on Education & Learning

Subjects to learn are aplenty. Educative, entertaining, humor, history, biographies, activities, arts, culture, drawing, computer, medicine, GK, business, and so on. Some of these do not come under school curriculum. Like wise, there is not a single subject that a book skipped. So reading is sure to enhance abundant knowledge.

Similarly, sharing knowledge with the elders also serve one to a greater extent. The different problems faced by them, how they had tackled them, are another way of education. Hence it is said that ‘Life is a classroom we never graduate from!’

Some magazines run a special column too, inviting contributions from readers about how they were doped or how they had successfully managed a tricky situation. Reading them creates awareness and acts as an eye opener to us.

Schooling is more important. It is the foundation for our growth. There is no second opinion about it. However, mere schooling is not sufficed! The more one learns, the more he/she is respected wherever he/ she go.

To cite an example, Swami Vivekananda’s speech at Chicago in USA, fetched name and fame not only to him, but to all of us and the entire nation too.

These two, education and learning, are like two railway lines over which our train of life travels. If one is not straight, it will end in disaster, toppling us. So, both are important. It is like inhaling and exhaling of breath that keeps us alive.

While we give ourselves good education, let us also learn all that there is to learn and become genius.

Abiotic and Biotic Components of an Ecosystem

2. Organic Substances:

They are present in the biomass or in the environment. They form the living body and influence the functioning of the ecosystem. Examples: Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, humus, etc. % Climate Factors: They have a strong influence on the ecosystem. Water: Plants and animals receive the water from the soil and the Earth’s surface. Water is the medium by which mineral nutrients enter and distributed in plants. For the survival of animals, water is necessary.

3. Soil:

Soil provides nutrients, water, a structural growing medium for organisms. Atmospheric air: Within ecosystems, the atmosphere provides oxygen for respiration of organisms and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis in plants.

4. Sunlight:

Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis. It is used to heat the atmosphere in ecosystems.

Biotic Components:

All the living components of the environment constitute the biotic components.

Depending on their self-food producing capability, biotic components are of following types,

(i) Producers or Autotrophic components

Producers are self-nourishing organisms (so they are called autotrophs). They contain chlorophyll and are capable of converting carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of sun-light into carbohydrates through photosynthesis. In the process, they give out oxygen.

Autotrophy is of Following Types:

(i) Photoautotrophs

These are the producers who fix energy from the sun and store it in complex organic compounds.

Examples Green plants, some bacteria, algae.

(ii) Chemoautotrophs (chemosynthesizers)

They are bacteria that oxidize reduced inorganic substances (typically ammonia and sulphur compounds) and produce complex organic compounds.

Example nitrifying bacteria in the soil under ground

(iii) Consumers (or heterotrophic components):

Consumers depend on producers to obtain their energy for survival. They utilize, rearrange and decompose the organic matter produced by autotrophs.

Consumers are classified as herbivores, carnivores and top carnivores depending on their food habits.

(a) Herbivores (or Primary Consumers): They feed on green plants (autotrophs) to obtain energy for survival.

Seed-eaters are also known as Granivores. Fruit-eaters are also known as Frugivores.

Examples Grasshoppers, rabbits, goats, cows, horses, etc

(b) Carnivores (or Secondary Consumers): They feed on primary consumers. Examples Lizard, fox, hawk, etc

(c) Top Carnivores (or Tertiary Consumers): They eat the flesh of carnivores and are not killed or eaten by other animals.

Examples Lions, tigers, vultures, etc

(iv) Decomposers:

The decomposers are also known as saprotrophs (i.e. sapros = rottten; trophs = feeder). They feed on dead organic matter (from producers and consumers). They transform complex organic compounds back into simple inorganic substances like C02, H2O, phosphates, and sulphates. Examples Bacteria, fungi, other microbes, etc

Fallen leaves, parts of dead trees, and faecal wastes of animals are termed as detritus. The consumers that feed on detritus are known as detrivores. Examples Ants, termites, earthworms, crabs, etc.

Decomposers and detrivores are essential for the long-term survival of a community. Their vital role is to complete the matter cycle. Enormous wastes of plant litter, dead animal bodies, animal excreta, and garbage would collect on Earth without them.

Furthermore, important nutrients would remain indefinitely in dead matter. The producers would not get their nutrients, and life would be impossible without detrivores and decomposers.

452 Words Essay on Our Duty (free to read)

Well, that is the duty of the mother everywhere. As far as the young ones are concerned, it is their bounden duty to listen to their parents and follow the guidelines given to them or otherwise the young ones will meet a U agric end.

Like wise, we children too have certain duties and responsibilities! When in school, our duty is to maintain strict discipline, respect the teachers and the elders, love the other children, help the others when necessary and study well.

There is more to it. Getting up early, brushing the teeth, studying, bathing, eating breakfast and going to school; all these can be found in the ‘Good Habits’ books.

After reaching home, doing the home work, going to tuition if there is tuition classes or play for some time, and then resume studies once again, keep the books and note books ready for the next day’s time table, help parents or brothers and sisters as and when possible and finally go to bed.

This routine continues during the college days too. Then applying for a job, preparing for the competitive examination, attend personal interviews, taking advice from elders as to how to speak and answers queries and start working. Thus at every stage, there is a duty to perform.

No one can escape from one’s duty. If a boy/ girl don’t study well, he/she fail in the examination. If a man doesn’t discharge his duty in the office, he loses his job. This is what die great ‘Bhadvadgka’ also preaches. Duty is otherwise called Karma.

So do not shy away from doing your duties. It is also said that, “Duty only frowns, when you flee from it; follow it, and it smiles upon you!” So from this day, let us all do our duty well in time.

487 Words Essay on Pollution (free to read)

At times, it may be fatal too. One may recall the leakage in the poisonous gas cylinder in the Union Carbide company in Bhopal that killed some hundreds of people and the cattle.

Similarly, the twin atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the USAF during the World War II had killed lakhs of people and wounded almost equal number of it, besides making thousands cripple even by birth. Thus the fresh air is polluted.

Water Pollution:

Olden day’s people fetched the drinking water from the rivers and drank them without even boiling. Such waters never did any harm to anybody. On the contrary, the river water that rail through the natural herbs brought medicinal effect too, with it.

But now? Even the Ganges water cannot be taken as it is! The reason to this fateful situation is that, the river water is contaminated!

The industrialization may have its own advantages, but then the most hazardous wastage from the industries is let out carelessly and they get mixed up with the fresh river water and pollute it. Thus, pollution spreads its wings to water too!


Soil plays an important role to mankind. It is the good, unpolluted soil that helps the farmers. If the soil is spoilt again, due to the letting out of the industrial waste water, the soil becomes barren lands.

Once it is affected, it can never be fit for cultivation. Similarly, it is die rigid soil that can withstand die structures. This way, soil helps us in abundant measure. Further more, soil indirectly helps to get more rains.

The trees that grow over them fetch rain. When the soil becomes unfit, it would be almost like a desert. That’s why desert, with no trees gets no rain and always remains a drought, a barren land.

While these three attribute to the major cause, there are many other things that amount to pollution. For example, when the rain water gets flooded, it gets mixed up with the drainage water and remains stagnant in many dwelling areas and thereby it becomes a breeding ground for mosquitoes, besides polluting the ground water.


Life on the earth depends on the layer of Ozone gas in die air. It protects the eared from die sun’s direct Ultra Violet Rays. If air pollution is not controlled, the average temperature would increase by 2 to 4 C by 2030.

423 Words Essay on Procrastination is the Thief of Time

A student who wastes a lot of time and reads his lessons just a day before die examination cannot fare well. Instead, if he reads the lesson taught on die same day means, he can simply revise die portion before the exam. This way he would never get confused.

Be it a student or an employed or a business baron, one has to plan one’s own work for die day and for die next day as well. Children must prepare a time table for studies; say in between 6 and 9 pm and /or 7 to 8 am.

The working class can jot down the day’s work to be done in an engagement day and plan in such a way that at every stage his work would be completed and he gets the pleasure of achieving many things on time frame.

If the nature of work of a person involves touring/ extensive travelling, he should chalk out a plan well in advance, prioritizing the work so that he can cut down travelling extra distance and spending more time. And he only can work out a strategy regarding this.

Henceforth, avoid postponing die work. Plan and execute it on time-bound limit. Keep at it for a few days though it might seem to be boring or tedious. Once you get used to it, upon completion of every job, you will feel the exhilaration. Be a master of time, or otherwise the time will quietly kill you.

5 Essentials and Legal Rules for Misrepresentation

The first is the opinion which the buyer may adopt if he so wishes. And the second is a statement of fact, which if false, makes the contract voidable.

2. The misrepresentation must be false, but the person making it honestly believes it to be true:

The statement of facts which amounts to misrepresentation must be a false statement. But the person making it should believe it to be true.

3. The misrepresentations must induce the other party to enter into contract:

The person making false representation must have the intention to induce the other party. Moreover, the second party must enter into a contract believing the representation to be true.

4. The misrepresentation must have been addressed by one party to the party misled:

The false statement which amounts to misrepresentation must have been addressed by the person making it to the party who is misled by it. If it is not addressed to the party who is misled, then it is not misrepresentation and the contract is not voidable at his option.

5. Change of circumstances, may amount to misrepresentation:

Sometimes, a representation of fact is made, and the circumstances change before the conclusion of the contract. In such cases, the change of circumstances which affect the facts already represented must be brought to the knowledge of the other party.

If the change is not brought to the knowledge of the other party, then the contract can be set aside on the ground of misrepresentation.

382 Words Essay on Pen is Mightier than the Sword

From this, it is clear that a great lover of war had so much respect for a journalist. Pen here refers to human mind. Sword symbolizes strength or force or brutality. The mind is a wonderful part of the body that elevates a person so high in life.

For example, the writings of eminent persons like Shakespeare, Tolstoy, Tagore, Milton, etc. still ripple out across after many hundreds of years, while the names of good sword fighters are easily forgotten. It is said that “Old soldiers never die, but they just fade away!

In die competitive environment of today all over the world, people or die government seldom opt for war. They want peace and prosperity. Prosperity comes when there is improvement in all walks of life.

Schools, colleges, hospitals, institutions, sports, arts & crafts, self sufficiency in food, more employment opportunities for all, wealth, enhanced life style and status and many more. There are so many things like these that people want. Not just a fight. Of course, sword fighting is also a sport. But there ends all importance to it.

It cannot fetch all things necessary to live. Furthermore, it is said that a sword wielding man finally dies by sword only! Therefore, pen (Brain) is mightier than sword; die story of lion and the hare is more pertinent to it.

384 Words Essay on Make Hay While the Sun Shines

To begin well, as mentioned above, one has to calculate all possibilities that would bear fruit. For certain work pertaining to agriculture, there is recommended period to commence work, so that the change of weather/climate does not affect its result.

A man who wants to construct a house must start during the summer so that by the time it comes to lintel level and ceiling work, the rainy season would be on the anvil. And the rain would not affect his house work in any way.

Similarly when someone wants to dig a well or bore well, the best period is before the start of the rainy season; only then the ground water level would be deep down and he can dig maximum depth to get sufficient water to last until tire next season.

Instead, if he tries during rainy season, lie cannot dig too deep as the ground water level would be so high that within a few feet he would strike water and cannot dig deeper.

Like wise for every task, there is a time. Time here does not mean auspicious hours or any sort of sentimental bosh. So plan your work accordingly, choosing the right time and reap the benefit.